Types Of Brain Cancer

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Types Of Brain Cancer. nine categories of primary brain tumors, which are based on the types of cells in which the tumors originate. Gliomas are primary brain tumors that are made up of glial cells—cells that provide important structural support for the nerve cells in the brain .
It is important for us to distinguish between primary brain cancer (ie begin in the brain), with secondary brain cancer (starts in other organs in the body such as lung or breast and then spread to the brain). In adults, cancer metastasis to the brain is actually more common than primary brain cancer. This cancer is not treated the same way. For example, breast cancer or lung metastases to the brain are treated differently than cancer that begins in the brain. The discussion here only on primary brain cancer.

Unlike other types of cancer, cancer of the brain or spinal cord rarely spread to distant organs. They cause damage because they spread locally and destroy normal brain tissue in a place where they appear. However, cancers of the brain or spinal cord are rarely considered "benign". Unless they have actually been removed or destroyed, most cancers of the brain or spinal cord tumors will continue to grow and eventually lead to death.

Primary brain cancer can begin in one type of tissue or cells in the brain or spinal cord. Some tumors contain a mixture of cell types. Tumors in different regions of the central nervous system may be treated differently and have different prognoses.

A. Gliomas:

Glioma is a general term for a group of tumors that begin in glial cells. Some tumors may be gliomas, including glioblastoma, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. About 4 out of 10 cases of brain cancer is a glioma. When counting cases of malignant brain cancer, about 8 out of 10 were gliomas.

A1. Astrocytomas:

Most tumors that arise in the brain itself begins in glial cells called astrocytes. These tumors are called astrocytomas. The statistics are about 3 out of 10 brain cancer.

Most astrocytomas can spread widely throughout the brain and one with normal brain tissue, which can make them very difficult to be removed surgically. Sometimes they spread along a major nervous system pathways. It is very rare for them to spread out the brain or spinal cord.

Grade astrocytomas are classified as low, medium, or high grade, based on how the cells look under a microscope.

    Low-grade astrocytomas: the type of the slowest growing

    Anaplastic astrocytomas: to grow at a moderate level

    The highest grade astrocytoma (or glioblastoma): the fastest growing. These tumors make up about two-thirds of astrocytomas and is the most common type of brain cancer (malignant) that affect adults.

A2. Oligodendrogliomas: These tumors start in brain cells called oligodendrocytes. Such as astrocytomas, most can infiltrate the nearby brain tissue and can not be completely removed by surgery. Oligodendrogliomas sometimes scattered throughout the central nervous system pathways but rarely spread outside the brain or spinal cord. A very aggressive type of tumor is known as anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Only about 3% of oligodendrogliomas type of brain tumor.

A3. Ependymomas: These tumors are derived from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles. Ependymomas may block the outflow of the central nervous system of the ventricles, causing a condition called hydrocephalus.

Astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas did not like, ependymomas usually do not grow to infiltrate into normal brain tissue. As a result, some (but not all) ependymomas can be completely removed and cured with surgery. Spinal cord ependymomas have the greatest chance to be cured through surgery. Ependymomas can spread along the CSF pathways but did not spread outside the brain or spinal cord. Its most aggressive form known as anaplastic ependymomas and usually can not be cured by surgery. Only about 2% of brain tumor type ependymomas.

B. Meningioma

Meningiomas arise from the meninges, the layer of tissue that surrounds the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Meningioma contribute to about 1 in 3 primary brain cancer and cancer of the spinal cord. They are the most common brain tumor in adults.

This tumor risk increases with age. They are about twice as common in women. In some cases these tumors are genetic (inherited), especially in those with neurofibromatosis (benign tumor syndrome in nerve tissue).

Meningiomas cause symptoms by pressing the brain or spinal cord. About 4 out of 5 meningiomas are benign, and most can be cured with surgery. However, some meningiomas grow very close to vital structures in the brain and can not be cured by surgery alone. A small number of meningiomas are malignant and may be reused many times after surgery, or even spread to other parts of the body.

C. Medulloblastomas

Medulloblastomas are tumors that develop from neuroectodermal cells (primitive nerve cells) in the cerebellum. They are a cancer that grows rapidly and often spreads to the rest of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, but they can be treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Medulloblastomas occur more frequently in children than in adults. They are part of a class of primitive neuroectodermal tumor called tumor (PNETs), which can occur in the brain and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

D. Gangliogliomas

Tumor-containing neurons and glial cells called the ganglioglioma. It is extremely rare in adults and has a high cure prospects with surgery alone or surgery combined with radiotherapy.

E. Schwannomas (neurilemomas)

Schwannomas derived from Schwann cells, which is part of the myelin-forming cranial nerve and other peripheral nerves. These tumors are usually benign. They can arise from cranial nerves. When they form a tumor of the cranial nerve responsible for balance near the cerebellum, they are called vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas. They also may arise from the spinal cord after they have left the spinal cord. Schwannomas make up about 9% of all CNS tumors.

Other tumors that can be started at or near the brain:

brain cancer

Chordomas: These tumors are rare starts in the bone at the base of the skull or spine at the lower end. Chordomas are not of central nervous system, but they can cause injury to the nervous system by pressing nearby. These tumors were treated by surgical removal if possible, and followed by radiotherapy, but they tend to return in the same area after treatment, which can cause progressive injury and death. They usually do not spread to other organs.

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Lymphomas start in lymphocytes (one of the major cell types of the immune system). Some types of lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) occurs in people with immune system problems, such as those infected with HIV. Development of new treatments for AIDS, causing this type of lymphoma of the brain become less common in recent years. Often highly malignant

lymphoma of the brain and can be difficult to treat. Recent advances in chemotherapy, however,  has improved the prognosis of this cancer.

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